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Harvard Referencing - SETU Libraries Waterford Guide: Paraphrasing and Direct Quotations

Paraphrasing and Direct Quotations


Essay excerpt

Dublin is the capital of Ireland. The Discover Ireland website (Fáilte Ireland, 2013) outlines some of the main tourist attractions in Dublin. The city is ‘small, easy to get around and offers no greater challenge than struggling to be cultural the morning after the night before’ (Davenport, 2010, p. 16). Dublin aims to encourage sustainable tourism and members of the public can help by altering behaviour patterns (Miller et al., 2010).


Paraphrase or Summary

When you paraphrase or summarise you express somebody else's ideas or theories in your own words.

Paraphrasing is not a direct quote, so there is no need to include quotation marks or page numbers. List the name(s) of the author(s) and the date of publication directly after the paraphrase. Example (see above): Miller et al., 2010.


Direct Quote

A Direct Quote is when you take an actual segment of text from another source and reproduce it word for word in your assignment.

Short quotations should be contained within your paragraph of text, but enclosed within single quotation marks. Example (see above): Davenport, 2010, p. 16.

Longer quotations should be indented as a separate paragraph and do not require quotation marks.

Unless you are quoting from material which does not have page numbers, you will always need a page number as part of your in text citation when quoting. 


Common Knowledge

Only information which is considered general knowledge, or common knowledge within your field of study, does not have to be referenced.



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